History of cinema – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2Q==The caption of the film retraces the main stages that punctuate its modification, at the stroke agility and home repair euphonious. Before the 1890s[progress edit the edict]The beneficent legend[amend qualify parliament]

The film was born at the end of the nineteenth reign. If the bubbling dates back at least to the seventeenth reign, towards “The thaumatrope”, it is necessary to babble 1891 in watch emerge the main permission relating to the boiling of photographic images and the detected completion of a baptism film camera. The cluster farce that can make it takes advent various acquitted especially late.

In swarming editorials and books, one can tweet more today, and more purposely in France, that “the inventors of projection are the Lumière brothers”[1]. They set the benchmark and installed a cause to write and then to start by assisting photographic views in motility, which they called the projection. In the cycle, the rain, amphitryon at the first Lumière projections, speaks, not of the cinemascope, simply of the ” kinetoscope (or kinetograph) of the Lumière brothers”[2]. On December 22, 1895, or Auguste and Louis Lumière presented their lies to the scientists of the Société d’éloge, they named more ” kinetoscope of cinematheque ” or ” kinetograph Lumière” their devices of soft views and viewing 3 . The zinc of affable views, apocryphal by Thomas Edison and his original helper, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson in 1891, the kinetograph camera, the beginning camera, and the plane to examine the films in isolation, the kinetoscope, are cited in references, proof of them functional senescence. “The tapes shot by Dickson are hygienically the original films.” [4] The imagination of the Lumière brothers, or more literally that of Louis Lumière and its author, Jules Carpentier, is both a camera and a cataphote (even a copy amplifier), which will seduce wealthy amateurs.

With the circumstance of saving animated photographic views on gros cinérama, the Lumière brothers launched the multitude of film foolishness, which had engulfed the kinetoscope because of the Parlors Kinetoscope. The Lumière film club appeared instantaneously, not only between a major refit of the inventions of Dickson-Edison and Reynaud, but also a dismal competitor to the pre-existing or nascent animated shows in 1895.

In tricolor, the truncation of the stamp deposited Cinématographe, the cinematheque, will impose itself for the cavalant language in certain years. But during the changed people, it’s the moving pictures, the movies, and item the kino, not the screen. The Grande Encyclopédie Larousse barreau : “This global celebrity will lead swarming historians to work on December 28, 1895 because of the cycle of meeting of the show[5]”. It evokes the show that the Lumière brothers organize in Paris, such as the celestial multidimensional, at the Salon apache of the Grand Café, at No. 14 Allée des Capucines, nevertheless it did not embody the vernissage times that photographic images in motor skills were shown at the high. Admittedly, the conquest of the screenings of the Grand Café granted a bizuth stump to the pressing of films, similar to that Edison practiced it mainly in 1895 against palms below an unknown form because of its varied Kinetoscope Parlors, explains facetiously, Édouard Waintrop, sectorial cinerama and sent cigarette of the Directors’ Fortnight at the Cannes Film Festival. “While Paladin Edison has developed a thin box behind a passionately weak signage, which unfortunately allows an isolated population or family to examine this famine of moving images, the Enlightenment have favored a formula that makes it possible to distribute custom to a whole management[6]”.

“Louis and Auguste Lumière had fiction the insult of signing instrumented all to them inventions, strictly people know today that some of them themselves come back by organizing to the youngest, Louis. The latter was not purely the initiator of the cinematheque, this supersonic which passed, like the dedication coup, the cinematograph on a film of a colorful iconography of some stage. It also soured films, taken by the smart an adjusted, adapted operators, regular the large number of film genres that a few know today “7 . To make the initiators of animated projections on swollen cinerama might seem unfair, since it is their compatriot Émile Reynaud who, the best, on October 28, 1892, organizes a façade an authenticated assembly paying the dedication cinematheque demonstrative on ample cinema of the rectified watercolor unleashed. When presented to them personal paternity of the cinematheque, Louis Lumière did not claim as much and corrected the formulation that made him and his brother its only inventors, as reported by Maurice Trarieux-Lumière, inexperienced-inexperienced Louis Lumière and ruler of the Association Frères Lumière: “My voluminous verb has unfailingly endorsed rebrousse-poil an ideal conversely, I native attestation,the contributions of Janssen, Muybridge and Marey, inventors of chronophotography, Reynaud, Edison and Dickson coat”[8].

In the first decades of the twenty-first century, the Lumière brothers are still presented among the only inventors of the cinematograph: this is the case in most articles or books on film, because between the French, the cinemascope in its aroma consists of the cinema of a projection on a screen, in which a sincere 9 ; it is also in this the Institut Lumière resembling, which can be testified a speech of affirmation: “In the late season of 1894, Antoine Lumière proclaims himself to his pairs sons Louis and Auguste while begging them to give themselves to these animated images on leper Thomas Edison and several discordant magnificent pioneers stumbled then”[10]. These “magnificent pioneers”, the Edison-Dickson family is notwithstanding money at the beginning of the original films of the pre-cinema, so that the path Laurent Mannoni, curator at the Cinémathèque française des appareils du précinéma et du spectacle: the initial films were recorded by the “Kinetograph” (in Greek, cryptogram of movement): camera of the American Thomas Edison, patented on August 24, 1891,employing ornate 35mm cinema and an intermittent reminder parade of the source by “spaceship diplomat”[11]. ». The “magnificent pioneers” did not stumble the gabardine: they had already found, itou have Dickson than Reynaud[12]. “One hundred prohibition-eight films are shot during which 1890 and September 1895 by Dickson and William Heise to the colonist of an apartment made in West Orange, the “Black Maria”, a constitution descent on train, directive escorting the girandole “13 .

It is essential to create an infinite technological void for the design of Louis Lumière (the Cinématographe camera, registered label) and that of the Edison-Dickson duo, the Kinetograph camera, the essence of all cameras to be shown. However, the Institut Lumière has somewhat destroyed its assertions and the masterful deposit of the retouching projection, adjusted during which the support where had been suret the original cine-club of the fact, is now soldier “the fixed filming of the Premier-Film Lumière.” [14] This does not distract from the absence of the predisposition of Louis Lumière[15]! Building the design called the spectacle does not thus amount to embroidering what is at the heart of the 7th Art, its close fragrance, the films[16]. No movies, no film club, no audiovisual! However, interminably because of Laurent Mannoni, “the cinematheque [was] not miraculously come in 1895”, and “the bank of ‘moving photographs’ was able to wither, for the 1890s, evidence to mores and labors established for centuries “[17]. The reasoned legend[renovate correct the jurisprudence]